Diabetes is not a disease but a disorder, affecting more than 10% of the human population. It is a condition where the body either does not produce adequate insulin or the insulin produced is not properly utilized, due to which the glucose concentration remains high in the blood stream. Diabetes is considered as one of the seven major controllable risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
India is known as the diabetic capital of the world. Diabetes claims 1 million Indian lives every year.
As per the data released by WHO, there are estimated 72.96 million cases of diabetes in the adult population of India. A study by the American Diabetes Association reports that India will see the greatest increase in people diagnosed with diabetes by 2030, to reach an whopping 101.2 million. The high incidence is attributed to a combination of genetic susceptibility plus adoption of a high-calorie, low-activity lifestyle by India’s growing middle class.
Like any engine, our body needs fuel to keep it going and this fuel is glucose. Glucose is derived from all sorts of foods that we consume, from chocolates to chicken, from bhelpuri to burger, food is converted to glucose which is in turn converted to energy for body functioning. After every meal our food is converted into glucose, thereby increasing the blood glucose levels. The blood glucose levels are controlled by a hormone called insulin. The cells cannot use glucose without the help of insulin. In a normal individual, the body manages to maintain an ideal level of glucose concentration. But in diabetes, insulin is either not produced or not utilized properly, and hence the glucose remains in the blood causing the condition, “Diabetes”.
Medical costs of individuals with diabetes are 2.3 times higher than what they would be without diabetes. Type 2 diabetes accounts for more than 90% of all diabetes cases in India. 45% of individuals with type 2 diabetes do not achieve adequate glycemic control leading to health complications in later years.
The following tests are considered important for diagnosing as well as monitoring the condition of Diabetes.
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Types of Diabetes
It is an autoimmune disease. The immune system attacks and destroys cells in the pancreas, where insulin is made. It’s unclear what causes this attack. About 10 percent of people with diabetes have this type of diabetes.
Doctors don’t know exactly what causes type 1 diabetes. For some reason, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
Genes may play a role in some people. It’s also possible that a virus sets off the immune system attack.
In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin. The body breaks down the carbohydrates you eat into blood sugar that it uses for energy—and insulin is a hormone that the body needs to get glucose from the bloodstream into the cells of the body. With the help of insulin therapy and other treatments, everyone can learn to manage their condition and live long, healthy lives.
Remember: It is a condition that can be managed. By living a healthy lifestyle filled with exercise and proper diet, you can live a normal life and do everything you set out to do.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes—and it means that your body doesn’t use insulin properly. It occurs when your body becomes resistant to insulin, and sugar builds up in your blood.
Type 2 diabetes stems from a combination of genetics and lifestyle factors. Being overweight or obese increases your risk too. Carrying extra weight, especially in your belly, makes your cells more resistant to the effects of insulin on your blood sugar.
This condition runs in families. Family members share genes that make them more likely to get type 2 diabetes and to be overweight.
A key part of managing type 2 diabetes is maintaining a healthy diet. You need to eat something sustainable that helps you feel better and still makes you feel happy and fed.
Fitness is another key to managing type 2 diabetes. The key is to find activities you love and do them as often as you can.
Treatment of diabetes
Doctors treat diabetes with a few different medications. Some of these drugs are taken by mouth, while others are available as injections.
Insulin is the main treatment for type 1 diabetes. It replaces the hormone your body isn’t able to produce.
Diet and exercise can help some people manage type 2 diabetes. If lifestyle changes aren’t enough to lower your blood sugar, you’ll need to take medication.
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